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A review of medical doppler ultrasonography of blood flow in general and especially in common carotid artery
Ammar A Oglat, MZ Matjafri, Nursakinah Suardi, Mohammad A Oqlat, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, Ahmad A Oqlat
January-March 2018, 26(1):3-13
Medical Doppler ultrasound is usually utilized in the clinical adjusting to evaluate and estimate blood flow in both the major (large) and the minor (tiny) vessels of the body. The normal and abnormal sign waveforms can be shown by spectral Doppler technique. The sign waveform is individual to each vessel. Thus, it is significant for the operator and the clinicians to understand the normal and abnormal diagnostic in a spectral Doppler show. The aim of this review is to explain the physical principles behind the medical Doppler ultrasound, also, to use some of the mathematical formulas utilized in the medical Doppler ultrasound examination. Furthermore, we discussed the color and spectral flow model of Doppler ultrasound. Finally, we explained spectral Doppler sign waveforms to show both the normal and abnormal signs waveforms that are individual to the common carotid artery, because these signs are important for both the radiologist and sonographer to perceive both the normal and abnormal in a spectral Doppler show.
  57 20,660 2,712
Chemical items used for preparing tissue-mimicking material of wall-less flow phantom for doppler ultrasound imaging
Ammar A Oglat, MZ Matjafri, Nursakinah Suardi, Mohammad A Oqlat, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, Ahmad A Oqlat, Omar F Farhat, Batool N Alkhateb, Raed Abdalrheem, Muntaser S Ahmad, Mohammed Y. M. Abujazar
July-September 2018, 26(3):123-127
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_13_17  PMID:30283197
The wall-less flow phantoms with recognized acoustic features (attenuation and speed of sound), interior properties, and dimensions of tissue were prepared, calibrated, and characterized of Doppler ultrasound scanning demands tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs). TMM phantoms are commercially available and ready-made for medical ultrasound applications. Furthermore, the commercial TMM phantoms are proper for ultrasound purpose or estimation of diagnostic imaging techniques according to the chemical materials used for its preparation. However, preparing a desirable TMM for wall-less flow phantom using a specific chemical material according to the specific applications is required for different flow. In this review, TMM and wall-less flow phantoms prepared using different chemical materials and methods were described. The chemical materials used in Doppler ultrasound TMM and wall-less flow phantoms fabricated over the previous decades were of high interest in this review.
  16 6,417 680
Is thyroid imaging reporting and data system useful as an adult ultrasonographic malignancy risk stratification method in pediatric thyroid nodules?
Yasemin Durum Polat, Veli Süha Öztürk, Nimet Ersoz, Ahmet Anık, Can Zafer Karaman
July-September 2019, 27(3):141-145
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_35_19  PMID:31867177
Background: Data on thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) generally belong to studies performed in adults. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance and utility of TI-RADS in the pediatric group. Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to 2018, 108 nodules were evaluated in 1028 thyroid ultrasound examinations. Images were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists with 3 and 7 years of pediatric radiology experience, according to TI-RADS classification. Morphological findings of the detected nodules and their histopathological results were recorded. Histopathological findings and at least 12 months of follow-up imaging were taken as reference. Results: Seventy-one patients were female (67%). The mean age was 11.4 ± 4.7, and the mean nodule size was 7.4 ± 8.3 mm. According to the histopathological assessment and at least 12 months' follow-up with clinical and sonographic stability 100 (95.2%) of the nodules were benign and 5 (4.8%) were malignant. Two nodules, nondiagnostic cytology and 1 nodule were found to be suspicious for malignancy. All malignant nodules were in the TI-RADS 5 category. The majority of benign nodules (79%) were found in low TI-RADS categories. About 80% of the malignant nodules were very hypoechoic and taller than wide in shape, also all malignant nodules had microcalcifications (P = 0.000). The sensitivity of TI-RADS was 100%, specificity was 78.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 19.2%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. Conclusion: According to our study, TI-RADS system can be used to evaluate thyroid nodules in pediatric patients similar to adults.
  12 3,467 319
Safety of perfluorobutane (Sonazoid) in characterizing focal liver lesions
Yi-Hong Chou, Ja-Der Liang, Shen-Yung Wang, Shih-Jer Hsu, Jui-Ting Hu, Sien-Sing Yang, Hsin-Kai Wang, Tien-Ying Lee, Chui-Mei Tiu
April-June 2019, 27(2):81-85
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_44_19  PMID:31316217
Background: The purpose of this study was to report the safety of perfluorobutane (Sonazoid) as a vascular-phase imaging agent in characterizing focal liver lesions (FLLs). Materials and Methods: From May 2014 to April 2015, a total of 54 individuals who received Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were enrolled at 5 hospitals of 4 medical centers. All individuals were included in safety evaluation. A prospective study to evaluate the adverse effect (AE) incidences after intravenous administration of Sonazoid. Results: Sonazoid was well tolerated. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) representing AE were recorded for 13 (24.1%) patients. The most common AE was abdominal pain (9.3%), followed by heart rate irregularity (5.6%). The majority of these patients (69.2%) experienced TEAEs that were mild in intensity. Sonazoid causes no significant AEs after intravenous injection. The only noteworthy AEs are related to tolerable myalgia (3.7%), abdominal pain (1.9%), and headache (1.9%). None of the 54 patients showed serious adverse effects. Conclusion: Sonazoid shows good safety and tolerance of intravenous use during CEUS of the liver for evaluation of FLLs.
  11 4,652 417
Imaging of lactating adenoma: Differential diagnosis of solid mass lesion in a lactating woman
Reddy Ravikanth, Kanagasabai Kamalasekar
October-December 2019, 27(4):208-210
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_3_19  PMID:31867197
Lactating adenoma is an uncommon palpable breast lesion occurring in the late pregnancy or lactation period and is commonly found in young primiparous women in the second or third decade of life. Although a benign condition, sometimes, core biopsy is required to exclude malignancy. Approximately 3% of all breast cancers occur in women who are pregnant; and hence, a breast mass in this group of women must be investigated. The main differential diagnosis for a palpable solid breast mass is lobular hyperplasia which is a normal physiological event, fibroadenoma, focal mastitis, lactating adenoma, tubular adenoma, phyllodes tumor, and breast carcinoma. Here, we present a case of lactating adenoma of the breast at 6 months' postpartum in a 24-year-old primiparous woman.
  10 3,643 293
A new scatter particle and mixture fluid for preparing blood mimicking fluid for wall-less flow phantom
Ammar A Oglat, MZ Matjafri, Nursakinah Suardi, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, Mohammad A Oqlat, Ahmad A Oqlat
July-September 2018, 26(3):134-142
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_7_18  PMID:30283199
Background: To examine the blood flow and detection of the issues related to it by medical ultrasound, it is extremely important to have suitable blood mimicking fluid (BMF) to be used in vitro and to have a movable or portable Doppler flow phantom to use it as a standardizing tool. As known, the main drawbacks of the currently commercial BMF used in the research studies are high in cost and the long time needed for preparation, which is at least 5–7 h. Moreover, there are only two common scatter particles using in BMF as suspension materials such as nylon (Orgasol) and polystyrene. Thus, we need to prepare BMF with both a new mixture fluid and new scatter particle to be as a reflecting factor of ultrasonic waves, for evaluating the speed of sound of the blood flow in the same method like in the research study of ultrasound with relatively low-cost and less consuming time of preparation. However, both the acoustical and physical features of the Doppler flow phantom components (BMF and tissue mimicking material) must correspond the features of the human tissues to make the examination significance. In addition, the BMF must also represent the hemodynamic features of real human blood. Methods: In this experiment, a new adequate ternary mixture liquid for preparation of BMF applied and suspended with a new scatter particle material, this scatter particle material called poly (4-methylstyrene), it used to be adequate with the mixture density and for saving neutrally buoyant. This BMF was prepared for use in the test objects or Doppler flow phantom. The poly (4-methylstyrene) particles were applied for suspension in a mixture liquid or fluid based on three items, which were distilled water, propylene glycol (PG), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (200 Mw). The diameter of poly (4-methylstyrene) particles is 3–8 μm, which determined by specific sieve in a unit of μm, and the density is 1.040 g/ml. Results: Speed of sound, viscosity, density, Backscatter power and attenuation features of mixture fluid or liquid which used for preparing a BMF were measured, discussed, and agreed with draft International Electrotechnical Commission values. Conclusions: There are three various types of ternary items of mixture fluid (water, PG, and PEG [200 Mw]), and a new type of scatter particle material poly (4-methylstyrene) was utilized for preparing the BMF. The scatter particles and mixture fluid prepared and measured at a temperature that simulates the body temperature 37°C. Moreover, one of the advantages of this new blood that is being cheaper than the commercially available BMF products because the PG and the polyethylene glycol (200 Mw) are much cheaper and more available than glycerol and the Dextran that used usually. In addition, new BMF needs less time for preparation compared to the commercial one.
  10 4,217 422
Effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound on clinical parameters and ultrasonographic cartilage thickness in knee osteoarthritis: A double-blind trial
Levent Ozgonenel, Sibel Çaglar Okur, Yasemin Pekin Dogan, Nil Sayiner Çaglar
October-December 2018, 26(4):194-199
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_21_18  PMID:30662150
Objective: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound (US) in knee OA. Patients and Methods: Thirty-three patients (mean age 54.7 ± 14.7) were randomized to receive either continuous US (n = 15) or sham US (n = 18) as a placebo. Continuous ultrasonic waves with 1 MHZ frequency and 1 watt/cm2 power were applied for 5 min for 10 sessions. The primary outcome was pain on movement assessed by visual analog scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes were WOMAC scores and measurements of distal femoral cartilage thickness by imaging US. Results: Both groups showed reduced knee pain on movement following intervention. The VAS measurements improved significantly both in the treatment and the placebo group patients (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05). WOMAC scores improved statistically significant in all domains (pain, stiffness, physical function, and total score) in the treatment group (P < 0.05). All domains of WOMAC score showed statistically significant change when compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). There was no change in the cartilage thickness measurements of medial femoral condyle, lateral femoral condyle, and intercondylar area in both groups after intervention. Conclusion: Results suggest that US is effective treatment modality in pain relief and improvement of function in patients with knee OA; however, US had no effect on cartilage repair.
  10 6,773 603
Comparison of strain elastography, shear wave elastography, and conventional ultrasound in diagnosing thyroid nodules
Li-Jen Liao, Huan-Wen Chen, Wan-Lun Hsu, Yung-Sheng Chen
January-March 2019, 27(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_46_18  PMID:31031532
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic performances of strain elastography (SE), shear wave elastography (SWE), and traditional ultrasound (US) features in diagnosing thyroid nodules. Subjects and Methods: This study included 185 adult patients with thyroid nodules who underwent conventional gray-scale US, SE, and SWE. SE was scored using a four-pattern elastographic scoring (ES) system. SWE values were presented as mean SWE values and standard derivation using Young's modules. The optimal cutoff values of the mean SWE values for predicting malignancy were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We used logistic regression models to test elastography as a novel significant predictor for the diagnosis of malignant nodules. The diagnostic performance of elastography parameters was compared with a traditional trained model. Results: Malignant thyroid nodules were stiffer for SE (ES patterns 1 and 2/3 and 4) and mean SWE values (4/17; 51.0 ± 24.4 kPa) than for benign nodules (114/50; 33.1 ± 25.2 kPa) (P < 0.01). In ROC curve analyses, a mean SWE value of 32 kPa was the optimal cutoff point, with diagnostic performance measures of 81% sensitivity, 65% specificity, a 23% positive predictive value (PPV), and 96% negative predictive value (NPV). In multivariate logistic regression, the mean SWE value (≥32 kPa) was an independent predictor for malignancy (odds ratio: 16.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6–78.3). However, after the addition of SE and SWE to traditional US features, the C-statistic was not significantly increased compared to the traditional model (0.88, 95% CI: 0.81–0.94 vs. 0.91, 0.85–0.97, P = 0.4). Conclusion: In this study, we confirmed SWE as an independent predictor for malignant thyroid nodules. However, in comparing the new extended elastography model to our previous prediction model, the new extended model showed no significant difference in the diagnostic performance.
  10 4,535 534
Ultrasonographic reference values for assessing normal sciatic nerve ultrasonography in the normal population
Jun Chen, Jiapeng Liu, Jiao Zeng, Shan Wu, Jun Ren
April-June 2018, 26(2):85-89
Objective: High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) has been used recently to characterize median and ulnar nerves but is seldom used to characterize the lower extremity nerves. The reference standard for normal the lower extremity nerves has not been established. Thus, this study measured the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the sciatic nerve of 200 healthy male or female volunteers, aged 18–80 using HRUS. These data provide basic clinical data for the use of high-resolution ultrasound for the future diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of peripheral neuropathies. Methods: Two hundred healthy volunteers with 400 lower extremities were studied with HRUS. According to their age, the subjects were assigned to young group (18-30 years, n = 75), middle group. (31-60 years, n = 70), and old group(61-80 year, n = 55).Age, sex, height, weight were recorded and CSAs of sciatic nerve were obtained at every predetermined sites. Results: The mean CSAs of sciatic nerves at GS and MGPF were 0.527 ± 0.028 cm2 and 0.444 ± 0.026 cm2 respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the mean CSAs were correlated with height and weight. There was no difference in mean CSAs among the three groups (P > 0.05). Women had smaller CSAs of the normal Sciatic nerves than men in two measuring sites (GS, MGPF) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Peripheral nerve ultrasonography is a reliable and reproducible diagnostic method in the hands of experienced examiners. Normal values for the sciatic nerve nerves are provided by our study. Thus, reference values of Sciatic nerve CSA of the lower extremity can facilitate the analysis of abnormal nerve conditions.
  9 5,887 580
Comment on an intrauterine gestational sac surrounded by thin myometrium at fundus
Ibrahim A Abdelazim, Bassam Nussair, Gulmira Zhurabekova, Shikanova Svetlana, Mohannad Abu-Faza, Waheeb Naser
July-September 2018, 26(3):168-169
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_58_18  PMID:30283207
  7 3,044 254
Ultrasound-guided aspiration of a paralabral cyst at the spinoglenoid notch with suprascapular nerve compressive neuropathy
Tze-Chao Wee, Chueh-Hung Wu
July-September 2018, 26(3):166-167
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_39_18  PMID:30283206
  7 5,320 361
Conservative management of infected postpartum uterine dehiscence after cesarean section
Ahmed Samy El-Agwany
January-March 2018, 26(1):59-61
There is an increase in cesarean rates worldwide. Parallel to this, the complications increased. Among these complications, uterine dehiscence and pelvic hematoma with abscess collection have increased. Diagnosis using methods such as ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computer-aided tomography can be made. Treatment includes resuturing the uterine incision line, hysterectomy, or conservative treatment accompanied by broad-spectrum antibiotics administration. We evaluated three cases that were diagnosed by ultrasound as a dehiscent scar postpartum after cesarean section and they were managed conservatively with regular follow-up.
  7 7,478 498
Correlation of subcutaneous fat measured on ultrasound with Body Mass Index
Baby Nadeem, Raham Bacha, Syed Amir Gilani
October-December 2018, 26(4):205-209
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_34_18  PMID:30662152
Background: Body mass index (BMI) is used for the assessment of obesity and overweight worldwide. When body fat is increased BMI is also increased. Ultrasound is a reliable method to assess body fat. We have selected only one suprapubic region for the assessment of fat which is very easy to measure even in routine pelvic and abdominal ultrasound examination. During our routine examination, we can measure abdominal fat and inform the patient about his/her health state regarding obesity. It was a hypothesis that increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat will increase in BMI. Objective: The objective is to correlate subcutaneous fats measured on ultrasound with BMI. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, which was performed in Gilani ultrasound center, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 384 participants were included with simple random sampling technique. Individuals of 16–60 years age of both genders were included in that study. Pregnant ladies, athletes, children, and elderly participants were not included in that study. Toshiba (Xario) and Mindray (Z5) ultrasound machine were used for subcutaneous fats measurement. Participants were scanned in the supine position. Subcutaneous fats were measured on the suprapubic region in three different trials. Compression was avoided. Compression artifacts were avoided by applying more quantity of gel between transducer and skin. Stadiometer was used for the measurement of weight and height. To calculate BMI, Quetelet index was used. BMI was calculated with that formula BMI = weight (kg) divided by height (m2). Results: The result was made by calculation of mean and standard deviation. We calculated Pearson correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fats measured on ultrasound at the suprapubic region. It showed a significant high correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (P = 0.0000 which is < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a significantly high correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat measured on ultrasound. Ultrasound is a reliable method to assess subcutaneous fat. It can be a predictor of obesity like BMI.
  7 5,039 440
Reliability of ultrasound for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis
Rabia Hassan, Sobia Hussain, Raham Bacha, Syed Amir Gillani, Sajid Shaheen Malik
January-March 2019, 27(1):3-12
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_112_18  PMID:31031529
The aim of this review article was to investigate the pooled sensitivity and specificity of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) for the detection of synovitis and early bone erosion in the small joint in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, investigate the pooled sensitivity and specificity of Power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) for the detection of synovial hypervascularity in small joints in RA. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Wiley online library, Google Scholar, Research gate, E-book, BioMed Central, the Journal of Rheumatology and Springer Link were investigated from 2001 to 2017. Original researches related to the article written in English including RA, synovitis, bone erosion, grayscale, and PDUS were included in this study. The sample size, study design, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed. The review summarizes the value of MSUS for the detection of RA as it is the first choice of modality. Results show the acceptable reliability of US for the diagnosis of early bone erosions, synovitis, and synovial hypervascularity.
  7 6,136 599
A review of suspension-Scattered particles used in blood-mimicking fluid for doppler ultrasound imaging
Ammar A Oglat, Nursakinah Suardi, MZ Matjafri, Mohammad A Oqlat, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, Ahmad A Oqlat
April-June 2018, 26(2):68-76
Doppler ultrasound imaging system description and calibration need blood-mimicking fluids (BMFs) for the test target of medical ultrasound diagnostic tools, with known interior features and acoustic and physical properties of this fluid (BMF). Physical and acoustical properties determined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard are specified as constant values, the materials used in the BMF preparation should have values similar to the IEC standard values. However, BMF is ready-made commercially from a field of medical usage, which may not be appropriate in the layout of ultrasound system or for an estimate of novel imaging mechanism. It is often eligible to have the capability to make sound properties and mimic blood arrangement for specific applications. In this review, sufficient BMF materials, liquids, and measures are described which have been generated by utilizing diverse operation mechanism and materials that have sculptured a range of biological systems.
  7 6,360 633
High-intensity focused ultrasound thermal lesion detection using entropy imaging of ultrasound radio frequency signal time series
Maryam Mohammadi Monfared, Hamid Behnam, Parisa Rangraz, Jahan Tavakkoli
January-March 2018, 26(1):24-30
Background: During the past few decades, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) modality has been gaining surging interest in various therapeutic applications such as non- or minimally-invasive cancer treatment. Among other attributes, robust and real-time HIFU treatment monitoring and lesion detection have become essential issues for successful clinical acceptance of the modality. More recently, ultrasound radio frequency (RF) time series imaging has been studied by a number of researchers. Materials and Methods: The objective of this study is to investigate the applicability of entropy parameter of RF time series of ultrasound backscattered signals, a. k. a. Entropy imaging, toward HIFU thermal lesion detection. To this end, five fresh ex vivo porcine muscle tissue samples were exposed to HIFU exposures with total acoustic powers ranging from 30 to 110 Watts. The contrast-to-speckle ratio (CSR) values of the entropy images and their corresponding B-mode images of pre-, during- and post-HIFU exposure for each acoustic power were calculated. Results: The novelty of this study is the use of Entropy parameter on ultrasound RF time series for the first time. Statistically significant differences were obtained between the CSR values for the B mode and entropy images at various acoustic powers. In case of 110 Watt, a CSR value 3.4 times higher than B-mode images was accomplished using the proposed method. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared with the scaling parameter of Nakagami imaging and same data which are used in this study. Conclusion: Entropy has the potential for using as an imaging parameter for differentiating lesions in HIFU surgery.
  6 3,805 349
Role of orbital ultrasound in the assessment of clinically detected papilledema
Khaleel Ibraheem Mohson, Noor Auday
July-September 2019, 27(3):135-140
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_70_18  PMID:31867176
Background: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is frequently seen, and it is considered a serious problem that needs a careful assessment and management, especially by easy and least invasive modalities. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) using transorbital ultrasound (US) as a marker and indicator for diagnosing raised intracranial pressure. Patients and Methods: It is a prospective study that was carried out in Neurology and/or Ophthalmology Clinics, Baghdad Teaching Hospital in the Medical City Complex during the period from June 2016 to May 2017; in this study, 40 patients seeking medical help for other causes were considered to be a control group and the other 40 patients who were complaining of raised ICP symptoms and suggested of having optic disc swelling by ophthalmoscopy examination. All the patients and the control group were examined by transorbital US to measure the ONSD, and then, only the patients with symptoms of raised intracranial underwent a lumbar puncture (LP). Results: Pearson's correlation test was used, demonstrating a very significant correlation between the ultrasonographic ONSD and the measurements of LP (R > 0.9) and (P < 0.001). Transorbital US yielded high sensitivity (91.6%) with modest specificity (75%) and high accuracy (90.0%) of ONSD was considered the normal the cutoff value of (5 mm) obtained from the control group. The US also showed the crescent sign and the optic disc bulging with lower sensitivity than the ONSD (61.1% and 41.6%, respectively) but with very high specificity (100%) for both. Conclusion: ONSD by transorbital ultrasonography is highly accurate, easily performed, and noninvasive procedure for the detection of raised ICP. Routine daily monitoring of ONSD could be of help in intensive care units when invasive ICP monitoring is not available or contraindicated; it also has a good role in early recognition of intracranial hypertension.
  6 4,988 465
Radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Recommendations from the Asian conference on tumor ablation task force – Secondary publication
Eun Ju Ha, Jung Hwan Baek, Ying Che, Yi-Hong Chou, Nobuhiro Fukunari, Ji-Hoon Kim, Wei-Che Lin, Le Thi My, Dong Gyu Na, Lawrence Han Hwee Quek, Ming-Hsun Wu, Koichiro Yamakado, Jianhua Zhou
April-June 2021, 29(2):77-83
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablation technique widely used for the management of benign thyroid nodules. To date, five academic societies in various countries have reported clinical practice guidelines, opinion statements, or recommendations regarding the use of thyroid RFA. However, despite some similarities, there are also differences among the guidelines, and a consensus is required regarding safe and effective treatment in Asian countries. Therefore, a task force was organized by the guideline committee of the Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation with the goal of devising recommendations for the clinical use of thyroid RFA. The recommendations in this article are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus opinion of the task force members.
  6 2,427 400
Consistency of the sonographic image (double contour sign) in patients with gout after ambulation
Angel Checa
January-March 2019, 27(1):40-42
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_77_18  PMID:31031534
The aim of this study was to know whether or not any crystal shedding occurs after ambulation in patients with gout and how it affects the consistency of the sonographic image of crystal deposition on hyaline cartilage. A total of 18 consecutive patients (29 knees), 11 with early gout (17 knees) and seven with chondrocalcinosis (12 knees), were prospectively scanned by ultrasound. Examination at rest and after ambulation was performed in each patient. Crystal aggregates were measured in a transverse view. Crystal shedding after ambulation was noted in two patients (two knees) with gout. However, crystal deposits on the surface of the articular cartilage in gout kept invariable size. In patients with chondrocalcinosis, crystal shedding by ambulation was absent. The conclusion of this study is that the size of crystal deposits on the hyaline cartilage in gout and chondrocalcinosis assessed by ultrasound is not modifiable by ambulation.
  5 3,854 286
Huge broad ligament fibroid with paracervical extension: A safe approach by same setting myomectomy before hysterectomy
Ahmed Samy El-Agwany
January-March 2018, 26(1):45-47
The broad ligament is the most common extrauterine site for leiomyoma but with low incidence rate. We present a patient with complaints of lower abdominal pain and abdominal distension. Abdominal examination revealed a huge firm mass arising from the pelvis corresponding to 24-week size. The cervix was deviated and elevated but felt separable of the mass. Ultrasonographic examination showed 20 cm fibroid beside the uterus suggesting broad ligament fibroid. On laparotomy, the uterus was elevated up and deviated laterally by the mass. A 20 cm broad ligament fibroid was seen extending deep in the pelvis and up filling all the broad ligament. Myomectomy was performed initially to decompress the mass for easy hysterectomy and carefully evaluating the ureter avoiding its injury. Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. This case was reported because of the rare incidence of broad ligament leiomyoma and the difficulty in its operative management.
  5 14,517 488
Nonoperative choice of anterior cruciate ligament partial tear: Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection
Chi-Kai You, Chen-Liang Chou, Wei-Ting Wu, Yu-Chun Hsu
July-September 2019, 27(3):148-150
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_121_18  PMID:31867179
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the common musculoskeletal injuries. The most serious condition shall be managed by surgery, while the partial tear prefers conservative treatment, rehabilitation, exercise training, or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old female started to have right knee pain for a long time and the ACL partial tear was diagnosed through the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After three times of PRP injection through ultrasound guidance, the pain, instability, and enhancements of ACL tear in the postintervention MRI were decreased. This case confirms the effect of PRP combined with conservative treatment under the accuracy procedure and may provide another choice for the treatment of the ACL tear.
  5 11,865 679
Progress in the ultrasonographic microvascular imaging
Hsu-Heng Yen
January-March 2018, 26(1):1-2
  5 5,074 414
Application of ultrasound liver elastography to the diagnosis and monitoring of liver disease
Jing-Houng Wang
January-March 2019, 27(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_108_18  PMID:31031528
  5 3,863 529
Ultrasonic assessment of optic nerve sheath to detect increased intracranial pressure
Mohammad Ghasem Hanafi, Mohammadreza Maleki Verki, Sima Norouzi Parei
April-June 2019, 27(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/JMU.JMU_54_18  PMID:31316215
Purpose: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the prevalent symptoms of trauma, especially traumatic headache, which requires quick action for the diagnosis and treatment. The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a newly proposed technique for the detection of an increase in ICP. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this new diagnostic method in patients with increased ICP induced by trauma. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between December 2016 and February 2017. The patients with traumatic headache and who had been diagnosed with increased ICP using clinical signs and computed tomography scan were compared to the voluntary healthy group. In each patient, measurements were performed employing ultrasound three times on each eye in an axial region, and the mean of these sizes was obtained as the ONSD. Results: A total of 112 participants were examined. The mean ONSD measurement of the patients and the voluntary healthy group was 6.01 ± 0.76 and 3.41 ± 0.56 mm in the right eye, 6.11 ± 0.75 and 3.39 ± 0.54 mm in the left eye, and 6.06 ± 0.75 and 4.02 ± 1.07 mm in both sides, respectively. The ONSD in the right and left sides had high and significant correlation in the patients (r = 0.929, P < 0.000) and voluntary healthy (r = 0.630, P < 0.000) group. The mean ONSD of one of the patients was 6.24 ± 0.56 mm, and in another patient with no clinical sign of increased ICP, the mean ONSD was 4.61 ± 0.09 mm. Conclusions: Ultrasound performed on the diaphragm of the optic nerve with acceptable sensitivity can detect patients with an increase in ICP and can be efficacious in expediting the action needed to reduce ICP. Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound and high accuracy of the diameter of optic nerve sheath in detecting increase in ICP, as well as considering the fact that ultrasound is a noninvasive and available technique; it can be performed at the patient's bedside.
  5 5,141 492
Establishing normal values for shear-Wave elastography of the renal cortex in healthy adults
Ranjit S Sandhu, James Shin, Natasha E Wehrli, Jing Gao
April-June 2018, 26(2):81-84
Background: Shear-wave elastography of the kidney has emerged as a potential clinical application of this novel imaging tool. However, normal velocity values for shear-wave elastography involving the cortex of healthy kidneys have not been definitively established, and both inter- and intraobserver reliability has yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods: This prospective study involved ultrasound examination of 11 healthy adults. Shear-wave velocity values were obtained at the renal cortex in the longitudinal and transverse planes by both junior (fellow) and senior (attending) radiologists. Results: The mean shear-wave velocity values ranged between 2.82 and 2.9 m/s, which did not vary significantly between observers (junior vs. senior) or method of measurement (longitudinal vs. transverse planes), P = 0.533. However, there was a wide variation for these measurements (0.51–4.99 m/s). Separate analysis of the measurement depth demonstrated no statistically significant association with the shear-wave velocity values, P = 0.477. Conclusion: Our results agree with previous publications and help establish normal shear-wave velocity values and their range for the renal cortex in adults.
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* Source: CrossRef