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Lemmel's syndrome: Lesson based on a case report

 Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Renato Farina,
Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences Advanced Technologies, GF Ingrassia, University of Catania, Catania
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Lemmel's syndrome is a bile duct disease caused by periampullary duodenal diverticula that develop within 2–3 cm of the Vater papilla. This disease manifests itself as nonobstructive jaundice. In most cases, duodenal diverticula do not cause disease, and only in a small percentage of patients, diverticula cause biliary tract obstruction by extrinsic compression. If the compression is severe, in the long term, it can become complicated with lithiasis and cholangitis. Diagnosis is very difficult, and recurrent biliary symptoms must be directly related to the compression of the duodenal diverticula. Imaging is essential for differential diagnosis and includes conventional contrast radiographs, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The investigations show the dilation of the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts in the absence of lithiasis or main pancreatic duct dilatation, compressed by the diverticula, which most frequently originate from the medial wall of the second duodenal tract. The treatment of choice is surgical with removal of the diverticula. Failure to diagnose can cause serious health complications for the patient.

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