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Performance of European thyroid imaging reporting and data system in stratifying malignancy risk of thyroid nodules: A prospective study

1 Department of Radiology, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
2 Department of Endocrinology, Rohani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Zoleika Moazezi,
Department of Endocrinology, Rohani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Ganjafrooz Street, Babol, Mazandaran 47176-47745
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Background: There is a limited number of studies reporting the performance of European Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (EU-TIRADS) guideline in identifying thyroid nodule malignancy. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of EU-TIRADS regardless of thyroid nodule size. Methods: During August 2019-November 2021, subjects with thyroid nodules were prospectively included. Sonographic characteristics were recorded and scored as per EU-TIRADS guideline. Finally, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed, and cytological findings were reported. Results: Totally, 1266 thyroid nodules from 984 subjects were assessed, of which 295 nodules were smaller than 10 mm and 971 nodules were 10 mm or larger. Among nodules <10 mm, prevalence rates of malignancy for EU-TIRADS classes 2–5 were 0.0%, 3.7%, 20.6%, and 40.9%, respectively; these rates among nodules ≥10 mm were 2.3%, 4.0%, 19.3%, and 43.2%, respectively. The accuracy values of EU-TIRADS class 5 and EU-TIRADS class 4 or 5 in diagnosis of malignancy for nodules <10 mm were 86.4% and 79.7%, respectively; these rates for nodules ≥10 mm were 83.8% and 76.3%, respectively. Hypoechogenicity, microcalcification, ill-defined and irregular margins were predictors for malignancy regardless of thyroid nodule size. Conclusion: EU-TIRADS could provide an acceptable malignancy risk stratification that is helpful for better distinguishing benignity from malignancy, as well as preventing unnecessary FNA biopsies, in thyroid nodules irrespective of their size.

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