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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2022
Volume 30 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 245-318

Online since Tuesday, December 27, 2022

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Routine ultrasonography for intensified tuberculosis case finding in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) burdened countries: A proposed frame work p. 245
Geofery Luntsi, Anthony Chukwuka Ugwu, Muhammad Sani Ahmadu, Christopher Chukwuemeka Ohagwu, Mohammed Sidi, Kalu Ochie, Emmanuel Peter Mshelia, Akwa Egom Erim, Umar Abubakar, Flavious Bobuin Nkubli, Chigozie Ivor Nwobi, Eberechukwu Ayogu
Sonography has proven to be valuable diagnostic imaging equipment in the work-up of patients infected with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection. An extensive literature search was conducted between 1994 and 2021 for original peer-reviewed articles in the English language on ultrasound application in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), ultrasound application in infectious diseases in resource-constrained settings, point-of-care ultrasound in resource-scarce settings among others, across various electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, POPLINE, Scopus and Google Scholar, among others and some gray literature were also retrieved. Emerging themes were identified by their recurrence in literature. Ultrasound imaging is a rapid diagnostic tool and can accurately identify and characterize pathologic findings in patients infected with HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection, such as enlarged lymph nodes, pericarditis, and pleural effusion, among others for prompt patient management. Ultrasonography is cheaper and portable; interfacing software has become more users friendly and image quality significantly improved, making it possible for the provision of imaging services in an increasing number of clinical settings in resource-limited settings where access to diagnostic imaging is scarce. The use of focused assessment with sonography for HIV (FASH) for prompt diagnosis of EPTB in regions with a high incidence of HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection will aid in prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with undifferentiated TB, thus impacting on morbidity and mortality. The training and deployment of sonographers in endemic regions with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection, to diagnose EPTB using FASH protocol is a viable option that is in line with the global drive for intensified case finding and treatment algorithm, with a view to meeting the sustainable development goals target of ending HIV and TB epidemics and achieving universal health coverage.
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A review of blood-mimicking fluid properties using doppler ultrasound applications p. 251
Ammar A Oglat
Doppler imaging ultrasound characterization and standardization requires blood that is called blood mimicking fluid for the exam. With recognized internal properties, acoustic and physical features of this artificial blood. Both acoustical and physical merits set in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) scale are determined as regular values, where the components utilized in the artificial blood preparation must have values identical to the IEC values. An artificial blood is commercially available in the medical application and may not be suitable in the mode of ultrasonic device or for rate of new imaging technique. It is sometimes qualified to have the strength to produce sound features and simulate blood configuration for particular implementations. In the current review article, appropriate artificial blood components, fluids, and measurements are described that have been created using varied materials and processes that have modified for medical applications.
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Prenatal diagnosis of euploid increased nuchal translucency on fetal ultrasound (I): Noonan syndrome: Prenatal diagnosis and genetic testing p. 257
Chih-Ping Chen
Prenatal diagnosis of euploid increased nuchal translucency (NT) remains a challenge to obstetricians and genetic counselors although increased euploid NT at prenatal diagnosis can be associated with a favorable outcome. Prenatal diagnosis of euploid increased NT should include a differential diagnosis of pathogenetic copy number variants and RASopathy disorders (RDs) including Noonan syndrome (NS). Therefore, chromosomal microarray analysis, whole-exome sequencing, RD testing, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) gene testing may be necessary under such a circumstance. In this report, a comprehensive review of NS with its prenatal diagnosis and genetic testing is presented.
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Correlation between transabdominal sonographic prostate volume and anthropometric parameters p. 261
Chibueze Okorie Udo, Ebbi Donald Robinson, Olukunmi Yetunde Ijeruh, Nelson Chukwuemeka
Background: Prostate diseases commonly present with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) resulting from prostatic enlargement. Prostate volume (PV) can be evaluated using transabdominal ultrasonography. Focus is currently on relative factors of prostatic enlargement which includes obesity and central adiposity. The aim of this study is to correlate transabdominal sonographic PV and anthropometric parameters in patients with LUTS in Port Harcourt. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study carried out at the Radiology Department, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, between September 2020 and January 2021. One hundred and twenty (120) males from 40 years and above who presented with LUTS were recruited. Transabdominal PV estimation was done and body mass index (BMI) as well as WC was assessed. Data were analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences; appropriate statistical tests were applied and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean PV was 69.8 ± 63.5 cm3, 79.2% of the subjects had enlarged prostate with volume ≥30 cm3. PV was found to increase with age. The correlation between PV and anthropometric measures of obesity (BMI and WC) was statistically not significant. Conclusion: The work established that there is no correlation between PV and anthropometric measures of obesity – BMI and WC in negro population as opposed to nonblack population where there is correlation. Obesity may not be a considerable risk factor of prostatic enlargement in the studied population. Thus, anthropometrics may not be useful in predicting prostate size.
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Presence of color transition in biopsy specimens predicts outcome of liver lesion biopsies p. 266
Fleur Sophie Gittinger, Laura Wetterich, Patrick Michl, A Cristina Ripoll
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the presence of tissue transition in liver lesion biopsies to predict a successful outcome, as observed by modified macroscopic on-site evaluation (MOSE). Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 264 ultrasound-guided liver lesion biopsies, examining the influence the presence of tissue transition (visible color changes in biopsy specimens as evaluated visually) has on two endpoints (1) material retrieval, (2) attaining a definitive diagnosis) representing successful liver lesion biopsies, compared to previously evaluated variables in this context. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0. Results: Material retrieval and a definitive diagnosis occurred in 224/264 (84.8%) and 217/264 (82.2%) cases, the latter occurring more often when visual inspection revealed macroscopic tissue transition (92/96 [95.8%]) than when not (124/165 [75.2%]), P < 0.001. Tissue transition in biopsies was more common in secondary (74/162 [45.7%]) than (18/54 [33.3%]) primary liver lesions, though this was not significant (P = 0.112). On multivariate analysis, tissue transition in biopsies was an independent predictor of a definitive diagnosis and material retrieval. Conclusion: In liver lesion biopsies, MOSE of color transition in biopsies can indicate success. This is easily incorporated into clinical practice and can help overcome the lack of an on-site pathologist.
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Prognostic value of porta-hepatis lymphadenopathy in children with hepatitis A p. 272
Amin Mashhadi, Manijeh Khalili, Alireza Ansari Moghaddam, Mohadeseh Zadehmir
Background: The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of porta-hepatis lymphadenopathy (PHL) in children with hepatitis A virus. Methods: The present prospective cohort study included 123 pediatric patients with a definite diagnosis of hepatitis A who were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of PHL in their abdominal ultrasound: Group A included the patients with a porta-hepatis lymph node of >6 mm in diameter, whereas the patients with a porta-hepatis lymph node of <6 mm in diameter were classified in Group B. The patients were also classified based on the presence or absence of para-aortic lymphadenopathy: Group C had bisecting para-aortic lymph nodes, whereas Group D did not have such findings in their ultrasound. Afterward, the groups were compared in laboratory investigation results and hospital stay. Results: According to our results, Group A (n = 57) was significantly higher in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels compared to Group B (P < 0.05), whereas these two groups were not significantly different in the hospital stay. Furthermore, except bilirubin, all laboratory test results were significantly higher in Group C (n = 3) than in Group D. However, there was no significant correlation between the patients' prognosis with the absence or presence of porta-hepatis or para-aortic lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: We concluded that there was no significant relationship between porta-hepatis or para-aortic lymphadenopathy and the prognosis of the children with hepatitis A. However, ultrasound findings can help determine the disease severity in pediatric patients with hepatitis A.
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Shear wave elastography for assessment of testicular stiffness in patients with varicocele: A prospective comparative study Highly accessed article p. 277
Sabahattin Yuzkan, Atilla Hikmet Çilengir
Background: The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography and shear wave elastography (SWE) to assess stiffness and volume of testes in adult patients with varicocele, to compare the results with those of normal contralateral testes of the same patients and healthy testes of control subjects. Methods: In this IRB-approved prospective comparative study, 58 patients with varicocele (116 testes) and 58 control patients (116 testes) were enrolled. A total of 66 testes with varicocele were added to group A, their 50 healthful contralateral testes were added to Group B, and 116 healthy control testes were added to Group C. Analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) test was used to compare groups and Student's t-test was used for their binary comparisons. The correlation between the testicular stiffness and volume was studied using Pearson's correlation test. Results: There was not a significant difference in the mean SWE values between three groups and also, between two-group comparisons (P < 0.05). In the mean testicular volumes, a significant difference was observed between Groups A and C (P = 0.028). Conversely, there was not a significant difference between Groups A and B (P = 0.907) or Groups B and C (P = 0.094). A meaningful correlation between testicular stiffness and volume was not detected for each group. Conclusion: A significant correlation was not determined between SWE values and varicocele, and also between SWE values and testicular volume. We advise that more studies with larger populations of patients are required to verify the effectiveness of SWE in predicting testicular parenchymal damage.
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Comparing Two- and Three-dimensional Antral Follicle Count in Patients with Endometriosis p. 282
Andréia Regina de Oliveira Rodrigues, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sá, Guillermo Coca Velarde, Marcello Pereira Valle, Beatrice Nuto Nóbrega, Matheus Roque, Edward Araujo Júnior
Background: The purpose of the study was to compare three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound semiautomatic antral follicle count (AFC) with two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound real-time AFC to evaluate patients with deep endometriosis and/or endometrioma submitted to ovarian stimulation (OS). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study assessing all women with documented diagnosis of deep endometriosis who underwent OS for assisted reproduction treatment. The primary outcome was the difference between AFC by semiautomatic 3D follicle count using 3D volume datasets and 2D ultrasound count with the number of oocytes retrieved at the end of the cycle. The 3D ultrasound AFC was obtained using sonography-based automated volume count (SonoAVC), and the 2D ultrasound AFC data was collected from the electronic medical record. Results: Total of 36 women had deep endometriosis documented by magnetic resonance imaging, laparoscopy, or ultrasonography and 3D ovarian volume datasets stored from their first exam. The differences between the 2D and 3D AFC and the number of oocytes retrieved at the end of the stimulation were compared, showing no significant statistical difference between both methods (P = 0.59). Correlations were similar using both methods when compared to the number of oocytes retrieved (2D [r = 0.83, confidence interval (CI) = 0.68–0.9, P < 0.001]); (3D [r = 0.81, CI = 0.46–0.83, P < 0.001]). Conclusion: 3D semiautomatic AFC can be used to access the ovarian reserve in patients with endometriosis.
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One-Step Method in Creation of Artificial Ascites p. 287
Tienshin Chou, Cho-Li Yen, Li-Wei Chen, Cheng-Hung Chien
Background: The study aims to improve the success rate and the rapidity in creating artificial ascites before starting the treatment for subcapsular hepatocellular carcinomas. Methods: Two hundred and forty-six consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients who required the instillation of artificial ascites for better visualization or prevention from organ injury were recruited between November 2011 and September 2017. Initially, 95 patients were using the Seldinger technique, while the remaining 151 patients were using the one-step method. The proportions of patients who had undergone surgery, transarterial chemoembolization, or radiofrequency ablation therapy before performing artificial ascites infusion were 11.6% (11/95), 3% (3/95), and 37% (35/95) in the Seldinger group, and 15.9% (24/151), 15.2% (23/151), and 52.3% (79/151), respectively, in the one-step group. Results: The complete success rate, partial success rate, and failure rate in creating artificial ascites using the Seldinger technique and the one-step method were 76.8% (73/95), 11.6% (11/95), 11.6% (11/95) and 88.1% (133/151), 7.9% (12/151), 4% (6/151), respectively. The complete success rate was significantly higher in the one-step method group (P < 0.05) than that of the Seldinger group. The mean time required from starting the procedure to successful intraperitoneal instillation of glucose water was 145.79 ± 133.37 s in the one-step method, which was statistically shorter than that of 238.68 ± 95.58 s in the Seldinger group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The one-step method has a higher success rate than the Seldinger method in creating artificial ascites and is faster, especially in treatment-experienced patients.
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Point-of-care ultrasound helps differentiate the causes of unilateral lower limb swelling with rapid progression: A case report with literature review p. 291
Chun-Yen Huang, Jen-Tang Sun, Cheng-Yi Wu, Wan-Ching Lien
Unilateral lower limb swelling is a common complaint among emergency department (ED) patients. However, an isolated intramuscular hematoma is an uncommon cause of lower limb swelling. We present a case of left thigh swelling after a traffic accident in which an intramuscular hematoma was diagnosed using point-of-care ultrasound. A literature review was also conducted.
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Similar mullerian cysts in an identical twin: A case report and literature review p. 294
Fattaneh Pahlavan, Ahmad Vosough Taghi Dizaj
Several genital anomalies have been reported in the identical twins which have a tremendous effect on reproductive status. No previous studies have reported the Mullerian duct cyst in identical twin brothers. We describe a rare case of Mullerian cyst in a male identical twin with infertility. A 43-year-old man presented with 2 years of infertility. In the spermogram analysis, sperm count leaded to azoospermia detection. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) examination was done. An echo-free structure in the mid part of prostate suggested a Mullerian cyst which had caused ejaculatory duct obstruction. The other twin, who dealt with infertility as well, was referred for TRUS. A Mullerian cyst was detected. Ultimately, testicular sperm extraction and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration procedures were recommended. Imaging with variety ranges of modality can help to identify Mullerian cyst. Further researches for detecting the genetic factor causes of this anomaly should be considered.
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Diagnosing pulmonary embolism when the clinical picture is not clear – The role of the point-of-care ultrasound p. 297
Torcato Moreira-Marques, Yale Tung-Chen, Ana Martinez-Piñero
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become a reliable and powerful tool working as a complement to the traditional physical examination. It has proven to be a reliable and reproducible method to a quicker and safer diagnosis, sometimes surpassing the diagnostic accuracy of more traditional techniques. We present two cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) with clinical presentations that suggested other diagnoses, prior to the performance of POCUS: a 60-year-old patient with nausea and vomiting and a 66-year-old female with a week-long progressive increase of shortness of breath and increased peripheral edema. In the reported cases, we aim to pinpoint the importance and usefulness of POCUS in the everyday evaluation of our patients, in multiple settings and by multiple specialty physicians, supported by its robust evidence-based background. It has proven to be a useful tool in evaluating in a fast and nonharmful way complementing more traditional techniques, which proves to be especially important regarding cases, like the ones we describe, when the correct diagnosis is not always clear to presentation. The use of multiorgan POCUS allows even in the most atypical presentations, the rise of suspicion of PE, leading to the necessary steps to a final diagnosis and management.
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Usage of Point-of-care Ultrasonography for Rapid Diagnosis of Acute Renal Infarction: Two Case Reports p. 300
Yi-Hsin Lai, Cheng-Hsun Chuang, Sai-Wai Ho, Chia-Ching Chen
Acute renal infarction is a rare form of vascular emergency. Although major risk factors of renal infarction are due to cardio-embolic events such as atrial fibrillation, valvular or ischemic heart disease, renal artery thrombosis/dissection, and coagulopathy, the prevalence of idiopathic acute renal infarction can be as high as 59%. Two cases that contributed to this emergency are presented. The history, physical examination, and clinical imaging findings for clinical assessment are briefly described. Point-of-Care Ultrasonography (POCUS) was used to exclude other etiology and identify the pathological changes. The role of POCUS in rapid rule in acute renal infarction has been emphasized in clinical settings.
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Rapid detecting brachial plexus injury by point-of-care ultrasonography p. 303
Cheng-Hsun Chuang, Chao-Yen Huang, Sai-Wai Ho, Chia-Ching Chen
Brachial plexus injury (BPI) is regarded as one of the most devastating injuries of the upper extremity. Brachial plexus neuropathy can have a high morbidity by seriously affecting the motor function and sensation of upper limbs with loss of activities of daily living. The use of computed tomography myelogram and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessing brachial plexus offers valuable details including the location, morphology, and severity of preganglionic and postganglionic injuries during the preoperative period. High-field-strength MRI with specific coil and specialized MRI sequences might be not available in every emergency setting and is time-consuming. Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) comes in handy and offers good image resolution of muscles and nerves that makes early detection of neuromuscular injury possible. Here, we present a case report of BPI that POCUS provides indirect evidence of cervical root injury and expedite time to MRI.
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A case of peritoneal lymphomatosis diagnosed with ultrasound imaging p. 306
Masayuki Fujioka, Koichi Yabunaka, Yasutsugu Shirai, Kohei Noguchi, Masaya Inoue
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21-week routine antenatal ultrasound scan – Diagnosis of gastroschisis p. 308
Ravi Shanker Singh, Vikrant Bardhan, Sunil Kumar, Sonal Saran
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A triathlete with lateral retromalleolar pain p. 310
Édouard Giroux, Martin Lamontagne, Mathieu Boudier-Revéret
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Multiple cerebral abnormalities at third-trimester ultrasound scan in an uncomplicated pregnancy p. 312
Fabiana Castro, Ana Portela Carvalho, Juliana Rocha, Carla Marinho, Graça Rodrigues
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A 29-year-old female with nonpuerperal vaginal bleeding p. 314
Sonal Saran, Ravikant Kaushik
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A pediatric right lower quadrant pain case p. 315
Ciodem Uner, Oğuzhan Tokur, Sonay Aydın, Fatma Dilek Gökharman
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What is amiss? Neurosonogram in a 36-week-old late preterm neonate p. 316
Aakanksha Agarwal, Anjum Syed, Poonam Sherwani, Ravi Shankar
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CME Test p. 318

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Author Index  
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