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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 245-250

Routine ultrasonography for intensified tuberculosis case finding in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) burdened countries: A proposed frame work


1 Department of Medical Radiography, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiography and Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
3 Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
4 Department of Medical Radiography, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
5 Department of Radiography and Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Evangel University, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
6 Department of Radiography and Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
7 Department of Medical Radiography, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
8 Department of Radiology, Enugu State Teaching Hospital, Parkline Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Geofery Luntsi
Department of Medical Radiography, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmu.jmu_25_22

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Sonography has proven to be valuable diagnostic imaging equipment in the work-up of patients infected with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection. An extensive literature search was conducted between 1994 and 2021 for original peer-reviewed articles in the English language on ultrasound application in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), ultrasound application in infectious diseases in resource-constrained settings, point-of-care ultrasound in resource-scarce settings among others, across various electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, POPLINE, Scopus and Google Scholar, among others and some gray literature were also retrieved. Emerging themes were identified by their recurrence in literature. Ultrasound imaging is a rapid diagnostic tool and can accurately identify and characterize pathologic findings in patients infected with HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection, such as enlarged lymph nodes, pericarditis, and pleural effusion, among others for prompt patient management. Ultrasonography is cheaper and portable; interfacing software has become more users friendly and image quality significantly improved, making it possible for the provision of imaging services in an increasing number of clinical settings in resource-limited settings where access to diagnostic imaging is scarce. The use of focused assessment with sonography for HIV (FASH) for prompt diagnosis of EPTB in regions with a high incidence of HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection will aid in prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with undifferentiated TB, thus impacting on morbidity and mortality. The training and deployment of sonographers in endemic regions with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection, to diagnose EPTB using FASH protocol is a viable option that is in line with the global drive for intensified case finding and treatment algorithm, with a view to meeting the sustainable development goals target of ending HIV and TB epidemics and achieving universal health coverage.


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