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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 157-166

A review of carotid artery phantoms for doppler ultrasound applications

1 Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Science, School of Physics, Univirsti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
2 Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Joradan, Nigeria
3 Department of Physics, Plateau State University Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mohammed Zubir Matjafri
Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Science, School of Physics, Univirsti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JMU.JMU_164_20

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Ultrasound imaging systems need tissue-mimicking phantoms with a good range of acoustic properties. Many studies on carotid artery phantoms have been carried out using ultrasound; hence this study presents a review of the different forms of carotid artery phantoms used to examine blood hemodynamics by Doppler ultrasound (DU) methods and explains the ingredients that constitute every phantom with their advantages and disadvantages. Different research databases were consulted to access relevant information on carotid artery phantoms used for DU measurements after which the information were presented systematically spanning from walled phantoms to wall-less phantoms. This review points out the fact that carotid artery phantoms are made up of tissue mimicking materials, vessel mimicking materials, and blood mimicking fluid whose properties matched those of real human tissues and vessels. These materials are a combination of substances such as water, gelatin, glycerol, scatterers, and other powders in their right proportions.

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